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Roman Psalter (‘The Vespasian Psalter’), including prefaces (ff. 2v–11v, 109r), canticles (ff. 142r–152r), hymns (ff. 152r–154r) and liturgical texts (ff. 155r–160v)

Cotton MS Vespasian A I, ff 2r–160v : 2nd quarter of the 8th century-Early 11th century

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  • Title:
    Roman Psalter (‘The Vespasian Psalter’), including prefaces (ff. 2v–11v, 109r), canticles (ff. 142r–152r), hymns (ff. 152r–154r) and liturgical texts (ff. 155r–160v)
  • Collection Area: Western Manuscripts
  • Reference: Cotton MS Vespasian A I, ff 2r–160v
  • Creation Date: 2nd quarter of the 8th century-Early 11th century
  • Extent and Access:
    Extent:

    Parchment codex


    Access Conditions: Restrictions to access apply please consult British Library staff:
  • Language: Latin
    English, Old
  • Contents and Scope:
    Contents:

    The text is the earliest surviving example of St Jerome's first translation of the Psalms (the Roman version), first written c. 384. It was copied during the second quarter of the 8th century.

    The manuscript also contains the earliest (and the only pre-Carolingian) surviving example of two hymns traditionally attributed to Ambrose, archbishop of Milan (Hymn 2, Splendor Paternae Gloriae , ff. 152r-152v; Hymn 4, Deus creator omnium , ff. 152v-153r).

    An Old English gloss was added around the second quarter of the 9th century by the Royal Bible Master Scribe (Royal MS 1 E VI), whose hand appears in other manuscripts owned by or made at St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury. This gloss is the oldest extant translation into English of any biblical text.

    Prefatory material and two single leaves containing psalms were added in the 9th century (2v–11v, 109r, 141r).

    Cadences were added to selected verses of Psalms 148-150 (ff. 139v-140v): Anglo-Saxon neumes have been placed to the right of the final word of a verse or half-verse, with accents also inserted by the same scribe.

    Eadwig Basan, monk of Christ Church, Canterbury, made further additions in the early eleventh century (ff. 11v, 155r-160v). Those Latin texts on ff. 155r-156r are also accompanied by a later Old English gloss, added in the first half of the eleventh century.

    The contents of the manuscript are as follows:

    (f. 2r: blank).

    ff. 2v-3v: Basil of Caesarea, Homily on the first Psalm , trans. Rufinus.

    f. 3v: 'Psalmi omnimodam institutionem'.

    f. 4r: Letter from Pope Damasus I to St Jerome.

    f. 4r: Verses of Pope Damasus I.

    f. 4v: Letter from St Jerome to Pope Damsus I.

    f. 4v: Verses of St Jerome.

    ff. 4v-5r: Origo psalmorum .

    ff. 5r-5v: On the division of the Psalms into five books. Begins: 'Nunc exposuimus originem psalmorum'. Ends: 'sic habet omnis spiritus laudet dominum'.

    f. 6r: Short note on pauses in the Psalms. Begins: 'Diapsalma est semper'. Ends: 'fiat fiat hic est semper'. 'Expositio Alleluia apud Ebreos'. 'Expositio Alleluia apud Ckaldeos'. 'Interpretatio Alleluia apud Syros'. 'Interpretatio Alleluia apud Latinos'.

    ff. 6r-6v: 'Interpretatio Gloriae apud Ckaldeos'.

    f. 6v: 'Interpretatio Psalmi CXVIII per singular litteras'.

    ff. 6v-7v: 'Psalmi quando psalli vel legi debeant hic Kieronymus scribsit'. Begins: 'Quia me dulcissime filiae'. Ends: 'oratio nocturni temporis XC oratio ad altare XXXIII'.

    f. 7v: 'Ordo psalmorum per a b c d'.

    ff. 7v-8v: 'De litteris Kebreis quae in psalterio scriptae sunt'. Begins: 'Nudus tertius cum centesimum et XVIIII psalmum'. Ends: 'sub pedibus nostris velociter'.

    ff. 9r-11v: 'Interpretatio psalmorum'.

    ff. 12r-140v: Psalm 2 (begins imperfectly)-Psalm 150, in Latin (Roman version).

    f. 141r: Psalm 151 ('Hic psalmus proprie scribtus David extra numerum cum pugnavit cum Golia').

    f. 141v: 'Tu domine verus doctor et praestitor advocatus et iudex largitor'.

    ff. 142r-154r: Canticles and hymns, as follows:

    - f. 142r: 'Canticum Esaiae prof. II feria'. Begins 'Confitebor tibi domine'.

    - ff. 142r-143r: 'Canticum Ezechiae III feria'. Begins: 'Ego dixi indi medio'.

    - ff. 143r-144r: 'Canticum Annae viduae IIII feria'. Begins: 'Exultauit cor meum'.

    - ff. 144r-145r: 'Canticum Exodii quinta feria'. Begins: 'Cantemus Domino gloriose'.

    - ff. 145r-146v: 'Canticum Abbacu prof. sexta feria'. Begins: 'Domine audivi auditum'.

    - ff. 147r-150r: 'Canticum Deuteronomii in die sabba'. Begins: 'Adtende caelum et loquar'.

    - ff. 150r-151r: 'Hymnum trium puerorum'. Begins: 'Benedicite omnia opera'.

    - ff. 151r-151v: 'Canticum Zachariae sacerdotis'. Begins: 'Benedictus Dominus Deus Israhel'.

    - ff. 151v-152r: 'Canticum sanctae Mariae'. Begins: 'Magnificat anima mea'.

    - ff. 152r-152v: 'Hymnum ad matutinos'. Ambrose of Milan, Splendor Paternae Gloriae (Hymn 2; Walpole, Early Latin Hymns (1922), no. 3).

    - ff. 152v-153r: 'Hymnum vespertinum'. Ambrose of Milan, Deus creator omnium (Hymn 4; Walpole, Early Latin Hymns (1922), no. 5).

    - ff. 153r-154r: 'Hymnum diebus dominicis'. Begins: 'Rex aeterne domine' (Walpole, Early Latin Hymns (1922), no. 42).

    (f. 154v: blank).

    f. 155r: 'Hymnus ad matutinum diebus dominici'. Begins: 'Te Deum laudamus'.

    ff. 155r-156r: 'I[n]cipit fides catholica'.

    f. 156r: Eugenius, bishop of Toledo ('Toletanus'), Oratio .

    ff. 156v-160v: 'Confessio ad dominum sive oratio'.

    Decoration:

    Notes on removed/missing decoration:

    - A single leaf, now detached and mounted and boxed separately, had been inserted as f. 1, probably during the 17th century. Another single leaf, from the same source as the cutting on f. 160v (see below), had previously been inserted at this location, as off-set on f. 2r illustrates.

    - According to Thomas of Elmham's description of the Psalter in his Historia monasterii Sancti Augustini Cantuariensis , the manuscript formerly contained a depiction of Samuel. The original initial B of Psalm 1 is missing (probably the first of the ?four leaves missing before f. 12), and 'was probably historiated with the scene of Samuel anointing David' (Alexander, Insular Manuscripts (1978), p. 55).

    - A single leaf is missing from before f. 142: the offprint on f. 142r indicates that this was a carpet page with the sign of the cross forming the central design (Alexander, Insular Manuscripts (1978), p. 55).

    One full-page miniature in gold and colours, depicting King David, enthroned, and his musicians; the scene is enclosed by an arched border that contains scrollwork and interlacing in gold and colours as well as four roundels featuring the eagles and dogs (f. 30v).

    Nine large initials, two of which are historiated, with continuation lettering, in gold and colours. Except for the first, these mark the liturgical division of the Psalter into eight parts. They are as follows:

    - f. 21v: Psalm 17.

    - f. 31r: historiated initial, depicting David and his friend Jonathon, who stand holding spears and shaking hands; continuation letting alternating in silver and gold, on horizontally striped coloured background; Psalm 26.

    - f. 42r: word panel (lettering on coloured background); Psalm 38.

    - f. 53r: historiated initial, depicting David as a shepherd, rescuing a lamb from a lion; Psalm 52.

    - f. 64v: word panel (lettering in gold, on coloured background, with birds, animals and interlacing filling the interstices); Psalm 68.

    - f. 79v: word panel (lettering in colours, on horizontally striped background in gold and colours); Psalm 80.

    - f. 93v: eagle in the interstice of the opening initial; Psalm 97.

    - f. 110r: word panel (lettering in gold, on coloured background, with a man, birds and interlacing filling the interstices); Psalm 109.

    - f. 115v: word panel (lettering on a coloured background); Psalm 118.

    Smaller initials, in ink, often with interlacing or zoomorphic ornamentation and surrounding dots, in colours and gold, at the beginning of each Psalm.


  • History:
    Custodial History:

    Origin: England, S.E. (?Kent, ?Canterbury); Ghent (cutting pasted onto f. 160v)

    Provenance:

    ?The Benedictine Abbey of St Augustine's, Canterbury: the interlinear Old English gloss on the Psalms was added around the second quarter of the 9th century, by the 'Royal Bible Master Scribe', whose hand has been identified in other manuscripts belonging to the Abbey (see Budny, 'The Biblia Gregoriana ' (1999), p. 243).

    ?The Benedictine Cathedral Priory of Christ Church, Canterbury: additions made by the scribe and monk of Christ Church, Eadwig Basan (ff. 11v, 155r-160v).

    The Benedictine Abbey of St Augustine's Canterbury: the manuscript has been identified with the Psalter described by Thomas of Elmham as being kept on the high altar of the abbey church, when he wrote his history, 1414x1418 (see Wright, Vespasian Psalter (1967), pp. 37-41).

    William Cecil (b. 1520/21, d. 1598), 1st Baron Burghley, royal minister: the manuscript was lent by Cecil to Matthew Parker (b. 1504, d. 1575), archbishop of Canterbury, and returned by Parker on 24th January 1556 (see: British Library, Lansdowne MS 8, f. 190r; Wright, Vespasian Psalter (1967), p. 36 [facsimile] provides a full transcription of the letter).


  • Digital Version: http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref=Cotton_MS_Vespasian_A_I
  • Publications:

    Bibliography for ff. 2-160:

    Anglo-Saxon and Early English Psalter: now first printed from Manuscripts in the British Museum , ed. by J. Stevenson, Publications of the Surtees Society, 16, 19 (London: J.B. Nichols, 1843 and 1847) [on the text].

    Thomas of Elmham, Historia Monasterii S. Augustini Cantuariensis , ed. by Charles Hardwick, Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores / Rolls Series, 8 (London: Longmans, 1858), p. 98.

    W.R. Tymms and M.D. Wyatt, The Art of Illuminating as Practised in Europe from the Earliest Times (London: Day and Sons, 1860), p. 19, pl. VII.1-3.

    Walter de Gray Birch and Henry Jenner, Early Drawings and Illuminations: An Introduction to the Study of Illustrated Manuscripts (London: Bagster and Sons, 1879), p. 3.

    Rudolf Zeuner, Die Sprache des Kentischen Psalters (Vespasian A. I.): Ein Beitrag qur Angelsächsischen Grammatik (Halle: Niemeyer, 1881) [on the text].

    [E. Maunde Thompson and G.F. Warner], Catalogue of Ancient Manuscripts in the British Museum , 2 vols (London: British Museum, 1881-1884), II: Latin , pp. 8-11, pls 12-15.

    E. Maunde Thompson, Wycliffe Exhibition in the King’s Library (London: Clowes and Sons, 1884), no. 1.

    The Oldest English Texts: Glossaries, the Vespasian Psalter, and other works written before A.D. 900 , ed. with introductions and a glossary by Henry Sweet, Early English Text Society, Original Series, 79 (London: N Trübner & Co., 1885), pp. 183-420.

    M.R. James, The Ancient Libraries of Canterbury and Dover (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1903), pp. lxv-lxvi, 501.

    Conrad Grimm, Glossar zum Vespasian-Ppsalter und den Hymnen , Anglistische Forschungen, 18 (Heidelberg: Winter, 1906) [on the text].

    Abbot Gasquet and Edmund Bishop, The Bosworth Psalter (London: Bell and Sons, 1908), p. 7.

    J.A. Herbert, Illuminated Manuscripts (London: Methuen, 1911), p. 85.

    J.A. Herbert and J.P. Gilson, Schools of Illumination: Reproductions from Manuscripts in the British Museum , 6 vols (London: British Museum, 1914-1930), I: Hiberno-Saxon and Early English Schools A.D. 700-1100 , pls 6-7.

    Vorkarolingische Miniaturen , ed. by E. Heinrich Zimmermann, Deutscher Verein für Kunstwissenschaft: Denkmäler deutscher Kunst, 3 (Berlin: Im Selbstverlage des Deutschen Vereins für Kunstwissenschaft, 1916), pp. 120, 131, 133-34, 289-91.

    A.S. Walpole, Early Latin Hymns, with Introduction and Notes , Cambridge Patristic Texts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922), nos 3, 5, 42; pp. 35-39, 44-49, 211-17.

    Johannes Brøndsted, Early English Ornament: The Sources, Development and Relation to Foreign Styles of Pre-Norman Ornamental Art in England , with a preface by Reginal A. Smith, and trans. by Albany F. Major (London: Hachette, 1924), pp. 102-04, 109, 112, 122n., 124, figs 84, 85b.

    Eric. G. Millar, English Illuminated Manuscripts from the Xth to the XIIIth Century (Paris: Van Oest, 1926), p. 120.

    Reproductions from Illuminated Manuscripts , 5 vols (London: British Museum, 1923-65), IV (1928), ed. by Eric G. Millar, pl. 1.

    Kenneth Sisam, 'Cynewulf and his Poetry', Proceedings of the British Academy, 18 (1932), 303-31 (pp. 325-26n).

    Codices Latini Antiquiores , ed. by E. A. Lowe, 11 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934-1966), II: Great Britain and Ireland (1935), no. 193.

    T.D. Kendrick, Anglo-Saxon Art to A.D. 900 (London: Methuen, 1938), pp. 159-62, 181, pl. LXV.2.

    Sherman M. Kuhn, 'The Vespasian Psalter and the Old English Charter Hands', Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies , 18 (1943), 458-83, pl. I.

    Sherman M. Kuhn, 'From Canterbury to Lichfield', Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies , 23 (1948), 591-629, pls I, IIb.

    Otto Pächt, The Master of Mary of Burgundy (London: Faber & Faber, 1948), pp. 64, 69.

    Robert Weber, Le Psautier Romain et les Autres Anciens Psautiers Latins: Édition Critique (Rome: Abbaye Saint-Jérôme, 1953) [critical edition of the Romanum version].

    Kenneth Sisam, 'Canterbury, Lichfield and the Vespasian Psalter', Review of English Studies , n.s., 7 (1956), 1-12, 113-31; n.s. 8 (1957), 370-74.

    Sherman M Kuhn, 'Some Early Mercian Manuscripts', Review of English Studies , n.s., 8 (1957), 355-70.

    David A. Wright, 'The Vespasian Psalter and The Eighth-Century Renascence' (unpub. PhD thesis, Harvard University, 1956).

    Peter Brieger, English Art 1216-1307 , Oxford History of English Art, 4 (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1957), p. 83.

    N.R. Ker, Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957), pp. 266-67, no. 203.

    Walter Oakeshott, Classical Inspiration in Medieval Art (London: Chapman & Hall, 1959), pp. 36-38, 124, pl. 51a.

    Cecilia Sisam and Kenneth Sisam, The Salisbury Psalter, edited from Salisbury Cathedral MS 150 , Early English Text Society, 242 (London: Oxford University Press, 1959), p. ix.

    Pierre Salmon, Les 'Tituli Psalmorum' des Manuscrits Latins , Études Liturgiques, 3 (Paris: CERF, 1959), p. 77 (as 'L').

    E.A. Lowe, English Uncial (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), pp. 8, 21-22, pls. XXVI-XXVII.

    Paule Mertens-Fonck, A Glossary of the Vespasian Psalter and Hymns (Brit. Mus. Ms. Cotton Vespasian A 1) with a Latin-Mercian Index , Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l'Université de Liège, 154 (Paris: Société d'Édition 'Les Belles Lettres', 1960) [on the text].

    Hugo Steger, David Rex et Propheta: König David als Vorbildliche Verkörperung des Herrschers und Dichters im Mittelalter, nach Bilddarstellungen des Achten bis Zwölften Jahrhunderts , Erlanger Beiträge zur Sprachund Kunstwissenschaft, 6 (Nuremburg: Carl, 1961), pp. 155-57, pl. 3.

    Francis Wormald, 'An English Eleventh-Century Psalter with Pictures: British Museum, Cotton MS Tiberius C. VI', Walpole Society , 38 (1962), 1-14, pls 1-30 (p. 4).

    N.R. Ker, Medieval Libraries of Great Britain: A List of Surviving Books , Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks, 3, 2nd edn. (London: Royal Historical Society, 1964), p. 43.

    The Vespasian Psalter , ed. by Sherman M. Kuhn (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965) [critical edition].

    Minnie Cate Morrell, A Manual of Old English Biblical Materials (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1965), pp. 49-81 (as 'A') [with additional bibliography].

    Margaret Rickert, Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965), pp. 18-19, 49, pl. 10b.

    Illuminated Manuscripts Exhibited in the Grenville Library (London, British Museum, 1967), no. 13.

    R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, 'The Reception by the Anglo-Saxons of Mediterranean Art Following their Conversion from Ireland and Rome', Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo, Spoleto , 14 (1967), 797-825, pls I-XL (pp. 822-25, pls XXXVII-XXXVIII).

    The Vespasian Psalter: British Museum, Cotton Vespasian A.I , ed. by David H. Wright, with a contribution on the gloss by Alastair Campbell, Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile, 14 (Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1967) [facsimile].

    D.H. Wright, 'The Italian Stimulus on English Art around 700', in Stil und Überlieferung in der Kunst des Abendlandes , Akten des 21. Internationalen Kongresses für Kunstgeschichte in Bonn, 1964, 3 vols (Berlin: Mann, 1967), I: Epochen Europäischer Kunst , pp. 84-92 (p. 90, pl. 5/2).

    J.J.G. Alexander, Norman Illumination at Mont St Michel 966-1100 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), pp. 112, 129.

    Francis Klingender, Animals in Art and Thought to the End of the Middle Ages , ed. by Evelyn Antal and John Harthan (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971), p. 110, pl. 87.

    Carl Nordenfalk, Celtic and Anglo-Saxon painting: Book Illumination in the British Isles, 600-800 (London: Chatto & Windus, 1977), p. 95.

    Elżbieta Temple, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts, 900-1066, Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, 2 (London: Harvey Miller, 1976), no. 55.

    J.J.G. Alexander, Insular Manuscripts: 6th to the 9th Century , A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, 1 (London: Harvey Miller, 1978), no. 29, pp. 13, 17, 47, 55-58, 60, 65, 84, fig. 7, ills 143-47.

    Janet Backhouse, The Illuminated Manuscript (Oxford: Phaidon, 1979), fig. 2.

    The Stowe Psalter , ed. by Andrew C. Kimmens, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1979), p. ix.

    Helmut Gneuss, 'A Preliminary List of Manuscripts Written or Owned in England up to 1100', Anglo-Saxon England , 9 (1981), no. 381.

    Anne Lawrence, 'Manuscripts of Early Anglo-Norman Canterbury', in Medieval Art and Architecture at Canterbury before 1220 , British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions, 5, 1979 ([Leeds]: Published jointly with the Kent Archaeological Society [by the] British Archaeological Association), pp. 101-11 (p. 102).

    Otto Pächt, Buchmalerei des Mittelalters (Munich: Prestel, 1984), p. 77, fig. 100.

    Bonifatius Fischer, Lateinische Bibelhandschriften im frühen Mittelalter , Vetus Latina, 11 (Freiburg: Herder, 1985), p. 345, n. 314.

    Michelle P. Brown, A Guide to Western Historical Scripts from Antiquity to 1600 (London: British Library, 1990), pl. 17.

    Aliza Cohen-Mushlin, A Medieval Scriptorium: Sancta Maria Magdalena de Frankendal , Wolfenbütteler Mittelalter-Studien, 3, 2 vols (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1990), I, p. 126.

    Michael Gullick, Calligraphy (London: Studio Editions, 1990), pl. 7.

    Michelle P. Brown, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts (London: British Library, 1991), pl. 56.

    The Making of England: Anglo-Saxon Art and Culture, AD 600-900 , ed. by Leslie Webster and Janet Backhouse (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991), nos 153, 171 [exhibition catalogue].

    J.J.G. Alexander, Medieval Illuminators and their Methods of Work (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), p. 177, n. 95.

    Peter Lasko, Ars Sacra, 800-1200 , 2nd edn (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), p. 67.

    Phillip Pulsiano, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in Microfiche Facsimile, vol. 2, Psalters 1 , Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 137 (Binghampton: Centre for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1994), pp. 43-49.

    Phillip Pulsiano, 'Psalters', in The Liturgical Books of Anglo-Saxon England , ed. by Richard W. Pfaff, Old English Newsletter Subsidia, 23 (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995), pp. 61-86 (pp. 61-62).

    Michelle P. Brown, The Book of Cerne: Prayers, Patronage and Power in Ninth-Century England (London: British Library, 1996), pp. 17, 20-23, 69-73, 80, 116, 120, 125, 129, 144, 158, 176.

    Phillip Pulsiano, 'The Originality of the Old English Gloss of the Vespasian Psalter and its Relation to the Gloss of the Junius Psalter', Anglo-Saxon England , 25 (1996), 37-62 [on the text].

    Janet Backhouse, The Illuminated Page: Ten Centuries of Manuscript Painting in the British Library (London: British Library 1997), no. 2.

    Michelle P. Brown, ‘Sir Robert Cotton, collector and connoisseur?’, in Illuminating the Book: Makers and Interpreters: Essays in Honour of Janet Backhouse , ed. by Michelle P. Brown & Scot McKendrick (London: British Library, 1998), pp. 281-98 (pp. 284, 287–88; fig. 165).

    Michelle P. Brown and Patricia Lovett, The Historical Source Book for Scribes (London: British Library, 1999), pls on pp. 25, 42.

    Mildred Budny, 'The Biblia Gregoriana', in St Augustine and the Conversion of England , ed. by Richard Gameson (Stroud: Sutton, 1999), pp. 237-84 (pp. 251-52, fig. 11.10).

    Richard Gameson, 'The Earliest Books of Christian Kent', in St Augustine and the Conversion of England , ed. by Richard Gameson (Stroud: Sutton, 1999), pp. 313-73 (pp. 330-36, 344, 349, 358, figs. 13.13-13.14, pls VI-VIII).

    George Brown, 'The Psalms as the Foundation of Anglo-Saxon Learning', in The Place of the Psalms in the Intellectual Culture of the Middle Ages , ed. by Nancy Van Deusen (Albany: State University of New York, 1999), pp. 1-24 (pp. 6, 8-11, fig. 1.1).

    Nicolas Bell, Music in Medieval Manuscripts (London: British Library, 2001), frontispiece.

    Helmut Gneuss, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100 , Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 241 (Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001), no. 381.

    Michelle P. Brown, 'Female Book-Ownership and Production in Anglo-Saxon England: the Evidence of the Ninth-Century Prayerbooks', in Lexis and Texts in Early English: Studies Presented to Jane Roberts , ed. C.J. Kay and L.M. Sylvester, (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001), pp. 45-67 (p. 48).

    Michelle P. Brown, 'Mercian Manuscripts? The "Tiberius" Group and Its Historical Context', in Mercia: An Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe , ed. by Michelle P. Brown and Carol A. Farr (London: Leicester University Press, 2001), pp. 281-91 (p. 282).

    Diane Reilly, 'French Romanesque Giant Bibles', Scriptorium: Revue Internationale des Études Relative aux Manuscrits , 56 (2002), 294-311 (p. 294 n. 1).

    Michelle P. Brown, The Lindisfarne Gospels: Society, Spirituality and the Scribe (London: British Library, 2003), pp. 76, 96, 134, 135, figs 59, 160, 213, 234, 241, 242, 269n., 275, 277, 289, 310, 335, 380, 383-85, fig. 40.

    Michelle P. Brown, Painted Labyrinth: The World of the Lindisfarne Gospels (London: British Library, 2003), pl. on p. 45.

    F.O. Büttner, 'Der illuminierte Psalter im Westen', in The Illuminated Psalter: Studies in the Content, Purpose and Placement of its Images , ed. by F.O. Büttner, (Belgium: Brepols, 2004), pp. 1-106 (p. 7).

    The Cambridge Illuminations: Ten Centuries of Book Production in the Medieval West , ed. by Paul Binski and Stella Panayotova (London: Harvey Miller, 2005), pp. 53, 72.

    Jane Roberts, Guide to Scripts used in English Writings up to 1500 (London: British Library, 2005), no. 2a; p. 25.

    K.D. Hartzell, Catalogue of Manuscripts Written or Owned in England up to 1200 containing Music (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2006), no. 142, p. 257.

    Michelle P. Brown, Manuscripts from the Anglo-Saxon Age (London: British Library, 2007), pls 38-39.

    Scot McKendrick and Kathleen Doyle, Bible Manuscripts: 1400 Years of Scribes and Scripture (London: British Library, 2007).


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