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THE SHERBORNE MISSAL (formerly the Alnwick Missal): England, probably the Benedictine Abbey of St Mary’s, Sherborne, co. Dorset; circa 1399-1407 . Latin. This is the largest, most lavish late medieval servicebook to...

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    THE SHERBORNE MISSAL (formerly the Alnwick Missal): England, probably the Benedictine Abbey of St Mary’s, Sherborne, co. Dorset; circa 1399-1407 . Latin. This is the largest, most lavish late medieval servicebook to have survived the Reformation intact. Noted, in appropriate sections, with square Gothic musical notation. Inclusion of the arms of Henry V as Prince of Wales (p. 81), a title he assumed shortly after the accession of his father, Henry IV, in 1399 and of Richard Mitford, Bishop of Salisbury (1396-1407) (p. 36) indicate the probable date of production. The arms of Sherborne (gules, cross argent, in dexter half a crozier in pale or debruised by the arms of the cross) and the other Benedictine houses in the Archdeaconry of Dorset (Glastonbury, Abbotsbury, Milton and Cerne) occur (see p. 78). The dedication of the abbey is depicted (p. 492), as is the introduction of Benedictine monks by St. Wulsin in 998 (p. 397). Mitford is depicted eight times in the illumination of the volume (see, for example, pp. 36, 260, 276, 376, 387, 388, 581), and its key patron, Robert Bruyning, Abbot of Sherborne (1385-1415) is depicted over a hundred times (see, for example, pp. 36, 218, 260, 276, 279, 376, 387, 388), often identified by his motto, ‘laus sit trinitati’. The principal artist, John Siferwas (who also illuminated the Lovel Lectionary, BL, Harley MS 7026, for presentation by John, Lord Lovel, to Salisbury Cathedral) gives his self-portrait on six occasions (see pp. 225, 276). At least four other artists were probably involved. Siferwas wears Dominican dress and we know from other sources that he was ordained an acolyte at Farnham, co. Surrey, by the Bishop of Winchester in 1380, that he was for a time a member of the Dominican house at Guildford, co. Surrey, and that he continues to be mentioned in Somerset wills of the 1420s. The arms of the Siferwas family, which originated in co. Hampshire, co. Dorset and co. Somerset, are shown adjacent to those of Prince Henry (p. 81). Siferwas also depicted the scribe, John Whas (see, for example, pp. 27, 216), who wears a Benedictine habit and who was probably a monk of Sherborne Abbey. A local cottager, John Whas, mentioned in 1377 in Bishop Erghum’s rental for the manor of Sherborne, is thought perhaps to have been the scribe’s father. Whas inscribed a colophon (p. 661): ‘Librum scribendo Ion Whas monachus laborat, Et mane surgendo corpus multum macerabat’ (‘John Whas, the monk, this book’s transcription undertaking, with early rising found his body sorely aching’. Surprisingly, the Use is not that of Sarum, as might be expected, but is based on an earlier Old Gregorian form of the liturgy, the introduction of which into Anglo-Saxon England has been ascribed to St Augustine of Canterbury. The Missal thereby preserves aspects of the oldest liturgies of the English Church. It may be that Sherborne wished it to be recalled, not least by its spiritual overlord the Bishop of Salisbury, that it was the older foundation, tracing its orgins back to 705 and, beyond, to the ancient British Church, hence the inclusion of the feasts of saints such as Alban and the West Country Briton, Juthwara (p. 489), and the Anglo-Saxon Bathild or Baltildis (p. 412). Aldhelm, Asser and the reformer Wulsin had been among the bishops of Sherborne before the see was transferred to Old Sarum by Bishop Herman in 1075 and thence to Salisbury in the early 13 th cent. The Bishop of Salisbury remained a major landowner in the manor of Sherborne. The decoration of the Ordinary of the Mass includes an abbreviated history of the Church, of Sherborne’s role in it, and a summary of its property holdings and benefactors. The Sherborne Missal’s ambitious and extremely extensive decorative programme seems to have addressed a number of agendas, for this world and the next. Its models included the York Minster history tables (see J. Friedman, ‘John Siferwas and the Mythological illustrations in the liber cosmographiae of John de Foxton’, Speculum , 58 (1983), 394-418) , a heraldic roll of arms compiled in the 13 th cent. (the Seger Armorial), the 12 th -cent. Sherborne Cartulary (BL, Add. MS. 46487), and a volume of administrative material relating to Sherborne, probably compiled to assist the abbot during Bruyning’s lifetime (BL, Cotton MS. Faustina A. ii). Sketches of birds probably made in northern England, to judge by the species represented (many of which remain native to the West Country), perhaps in the form of a sketchbook like the Pepys Sketchbook (Cambridge, Magdalene College, Pepys MS. 1916), were used as a source for the large naturalistic depictions of birds, labelled with their Middle English names, which adorn the Canon of the Mass. See J. M. Backhouse, The Sherborne Missal (1999); K. Scott, Later Gothic Manuscripts 1390-1490 (1996), no. 9; BL / M. P. Brown, The Sherborne Missal on Turning the Pages , CD-Rom (2001); Third Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (1872), App. 112; J. W. Legg, ‘Liturgical Notes on the Sherborne Missal, a Manuscript in the Possession of the Duke of Northumberland at Alnwick Castle’, Trans. of the St. Paul’s Ecclesiological Soc. , 4 (1896), 1-31; E. M. Thompson, ‘On the illuminated manuscripts in the exhibition of English medieval paintings’, Proc. of the Soc. of Antiquaries , 2 nd ser., 16 (1896), 226-230; J. A. Herbert, The Sherborne Missal , Roxburghe Club (1920); J. Fowler, Medieval Sherborne (1951); B. Yapp, ‘The Birds of the Sherborne Missal’, Proc. of the Dorset Nat. Hist. and Archaeological Soc. , 104 (1982), 5-15; T. S. Tolley, ‘Some historical interests at Sherborne c.1400’, in W. M. Ormrod, ed., England in the Fourteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Symposium (1986), pp. 255-266; T. S. Tolley, ‘The use of heraldry in an English illuminated manuscript of the early fifteenth century’, The Coat of Arms , n.s. vol. 7 (1988), 122-133; J. A. Goodall, ‘Heraldry in the decoration of English medieval manuscripts’, The Antiquaries Journal, 77 (1997), 179-220. The Sherborne Missal was still in England during the Reformation, when images of the Pope and of St. Thomas Becket were defaced in compliance with edicts issued during the 1530s (Sherborne Abbey was dissolved in March, 1539). It had reached the Continent before 1703 when it was presented by L. G. de Matignon, Bishop of Lisieux, to the antiquary Nicholas J. Foucault (arms on binding boards). It was subsequently owned by the French bibliophile Charles d’Orléans, Abbé de Rothelin (died 1744). Purchased at the sale of his library in 1746 by M. de Selles, Treasurer-General of the French Navy, whose library was sold in 1761 at which time the Missal failed to reach its reserve. A French note (f. ii) rel. to the history of Sherborne, dated 1785, was pasted to the recto of the first rear endpaper. Purchased in 1797 by George Galwey Mills (bookplate inside upper board) of Slaughter House, co. Glos (purchase note, f. ii). Purchased by Hugh Percy, 2 nd Duke of Northumberland (bookplate inside upper board), at the sale of his books in 1800 for £215. Remained in the possession of the Dukes of Northumberland at Alnwick Castle (other than temporary exhibition at Burlington House in 1896) until deposited on loan at the British Library (Loan MS. 82) by the 10 th Duke in 1983 and obtained for the nation in July 1998 of the 12th Duke, partly by acceptance in lieu of death duties and partly purchased with the assistance of the National Heritage Memorial Fund. Vellum; ff. ii + pp. 694 (18 th cent. ink pagination retained in favour of refoliation). Sec. fol.: ‘primus mandantem’ (after calendar, ‘ecce ego uenio’). 543 x 380mm. Vellum flyleaf (f. i) with 18 th cent. French illuminated (in Italianate Renaissance style) armorial table pasted to verso. Gatherings (46) of 8, except 1 6 (Calendar, pp. 1-12), 13 8 (wants 7, blank), 25 2 (Crucifixion, p. 380, with blank on recto and following blank leaf, blanks unpaginated), 41 6 (pp. 603-614), 46 6 (pp. 683-694). Decorated catchwords (one, p. 158, with human heads), that on p. 586 in a different hand. Systemmatic quire signatures in alph-numeric sequence throughout. Ruled in purple and red for double columns of 31 lines in single bounding lines, with the two top and two bottom horizontal lines extending beyond the verticals. Written space 355 x 243mm. Script is a Gothic textualis prescissa largely by John Whas’ hand. Binding, French 18 th cent., with elaborate tooled gilt spine and Foucault’s arms on both boards. Marbled endpapers. Gilded foredges. Sewn on 8 cords. Contents: 1. pp. 1-12. Calendar, with feast days graded by colour (printed by Legg, pp. 11-22). 2. pp. 13-358. Temporale (Proper of Time, see Legg). 3. pp. 359-378. Ordo Missae (Ordinary of the Mass, see Legg). 4. pp. 381-393. Canon Missae (Canon of the Mass, see Legg). 5. pp. 395-611. Sanctorale (Proper of Saints, see Legg). 6. pp. 613-662. Commune Sanctorum (Common of Saints, see Legg). 7. pp. 662-694. Missae Votivae (Votive Masses, see Legg). The Missal is considered a masterpiece of ‘International Gothic’ art, especially its fine full-page Crucifixion miniature (p. 380), which faces a blank page probably so that there would be no distraction from it as a devotional focus, serving almost as an altarpiece. There is, of course, no mass for Good Friday. It stands before the Canon of the Mass. Stylistically this miniature is related to the Wyndham-Payne Crucifixion (BL, Add. MS. 58078) by Herman Scheere, which seems at one time to have been nailed to wood as a panel. There is also a stylistic link with the Wilton Diptych. A strong element of portraiture (coupled with the detailing of contemporary dress) characterises the work, a trend which had been developing in English art since the reign of Richard II. The fragmentary Carmelite Missal (BL, Add. MSS. 29704-29705, 44892) and the Lytlington Missal (Westminster Abbey, MS. 37) provide something of a context for the scale of this ambitious and innovative work. John Siferwas was the Missal’s principal artist but he was assisted by at least four others, either members of the Sherborne community or more itinerant bought-in artists like the Dominican Siferwas himself (see Herbert, Scott and Backhouse). The volume is fully illuminated in gold and colours to an exceptionally high standard. Every page carries decoration and of the thousands of images only the major elements can reasonably be enumerated here (for further details, see Herbert and Scott). Major feastdays are emphasised by particularly elaborate historiated borders, which are sometimes composed of figures (ranks of monks, angels, prophets etc.) and / or foliate and architectural components (especially niches containing sculpture-like figures of the Virgin and Child). These are accompanied by a hierarchy of historiated initials, the minor of which also extend throughout the remainder of the text. Other important feasts have intercolumnar borders and bas-de-page scenes. Major initials are historiated and are of 7-9 or 4-6 lines; armorials are contained in 3-4 line minor initials and there are 2-3 line minor initials, some historiated, some foliate. Litterae notabiliores are subject to elaboration in ink, including diaperwork for those following historiated initials and those following punctuation are touched in red. Zoomorphic line-fillers occur sporadically. The Calendar features figures of Prophets and Apostles, the signs of the zodiac and the labours of the months, a simplified version of the programme found in the Breviary of Jeanne de Belleville (Paris, BN, MS. lat. 10483-4, a Parisian work of the 1320s of Dominican use which was in English royal ownership in the late 14 th cent.). The Ordinary and Canon of the Mass are distinguished by marginal depictions of British birds and by bas-de-page busts of kings and clerics holding cartouches inscribed with passages relating to Church history and particularly Sherborne’s history and properties. The feasts of the Common of Saints are introduced by small historiated initials containing busts of the saints. The Votive Masses are introduced by historiated initials depicting scenes appropriate to the mass in question (e.g. a doctor and patient for the mass for the sick, p. 678). Subjects of the miniatures, decorated openings for major feasts and historiated borders are as follows: 1. p. 1. Calendar. January: Jeremiah and St. Peter; man before fireside; Aquarius. 2. p. 2. Calendar. February: David and St. Andrew; digging; Pisces. 3. p. 3. Calendar. March: Isaiah and St. James the Greater; pruning; Aries. 4. p. 4. Calendar. April: Daniel and St. John; sowing; Taurus. 5. p. 5. Calendar. May: Hosea and St. Thomas; hawking; Gemini. 6. p. 6. Calendar. June: Amos and St. James the Lesser; cutting grass; Cancer. 7. p. 7. Calendar. July: Sofonias and St. Philip; man with scythe; Leo. 8. p. 8. Calendar. August: Joel and St. Bartholomew; harvesting; Virgo. 9. p. 9. Calendar. September: Micheas and St. Matthew; flailing; Libra. 10. p. 10. Calendar. October: Malachi and St. Simon; pig panage; Scorpio. 11. p. 11. Calendar. November: Zechariah and St. Jude; slaughtering pig; Sagittarius. 12. p. 12. Calendar. December: Ezechiel and St. Matthias; feasting; Capricorn. 13. p. 13. Temporale. First Sunday in Advent: initial ‘A’ with Annunciation; Creation and Genesis scenes. 14. p. 16. Temporale. Second Sunday in Advent: ‘P’, Noah’s Ark; Genesis scenes. 15. p. 19. Temporale. Third Sunday in Advent: ‘G’, Trinity and Abraham; angel and hermit. 16. p. 27. Temporale. Fourth Sunday in Advent: ‘M’, Moses and Aaron before Pharoah; scenes featuring Moses; depiction of scribe, John Whas. 17. p. 30. Temporale. Vigil of the Nativity: ‘H’, Joseph’s dream; ‘D’ with crib before synagogue. 18. p. 31. Temporale. Missa in Gallicantu: intercolumnar Edict of Caesar Augustus; Virgin and Child. 19. p. 33. Temporale. In Primo Mane: ‘L’, Annunciation to shepherds; Virgin and Child. 20. p. 36. Temporale. Mass of the Nativity: ‘P’, Nativity; Virgin and Child, patrons with arms. 21. p. 38. Temporale. Feast of St. Stephen: ‘E’, stoning of Stephen. 22. p. 40. Temporale. Feast day: ‘I’, St. John on Patmos; intercolumnar John with cup. 23. p. 42. Temporale. Holy Innocents: ‘E’, Annunciation to Joseph; bas-de-page Massacre of Innocents and Flight into Egypt. 24. p. 44. Temporale. Feast of St. Thomas (erased): ‘G’, martyrdom of Becket (defaced and restored); bas-de-page landscape with city and praying figure. 25. p. 47. Temporale. Circumcision: ‘P’, Presentation and Circumcision; John the Evangelist; angel; bas-de-page of angel presenting Abbot Bruyning, with dogs, and Benedictine. 26. p. 48. Temporale. First Sunday: ‘D’, Mary, Joseph and Christ blessed by priest. 27. p. 49. Temporale. Vigil of Epiphany: ‘L’, Baptism of Christ. 28. p. 51. Temporale. Epiphany: ‘E’, Adoration of Magi; bishop; bas-de-page scenes of Magi’s journey; Antitypes. 29. p. 55. Temporale. First Sunday after Epiphany: ‘I’, Christ teaching in Temple; Mary and Joseph; angel; abbot. 30. p. 56. Temporale. Octave of Epiphany: ‘E’, Christ blessing John at Baptism. 31. p. 58. Temporale. Second Sunday after Epiphany: ‘O’, marriage feast at Cana; intercolumnar angel. 32. p. 62. Temporale. Third Sunday after Epiphany: ‘A’, Christ and centurion and son; Christ heals leper. 33. p. 64. Temporale. Fourth Sunday after Epiphany: ‘A’, calling of Apostles in boat; abbot. 34. p. 66. Temporale. Fifth Sunday after Epiphany: ‘A’, Christ preaching; abbot before Christ as Sower of the Word; bas-de-page, man sowing and conversing with devil whilst others sleep. 35. p. 68. Temporale. Septuagesima Sunday: ‘C’, woman amidst chapels; bas-de-page of labourer and vineyard. 36. p. 71. Temporale. Sexagesima Sunday: ‘E’, Christ with orb addresses Samaritans; angel sowing; bas-de-page parable of the sower. 37. p. 76. Temporale. Quinquagesima Sunday: ‘E’, mocking of Christ; Flagellation; Resurrection; bas-de-page of Christ healing blind man (hermit). 38. p. 78. Temporale. Feria Quarta: ‘M’, blessing and distribution of ashes; Benedictine monks. 39. p. 85. Temporale. Quadragesima Sunday: ‘I’, third temptation of Christ; bas-de-page of Christ’s other temptations. 40. p. 102. Temporale. Second Sunday: ‘R’, woman before Christ; Apostles, women and Christ. 41. p. 117. Temporale. Third Sunday: ‘O’, enthoned God the Father; abbot. 42. p. 135. Temporale. Fourth Sunday: ‘L’, feeding of 5000; abbot. 43. p. 153. Temporale. Passion Sunday: ‘I’, Christ conversing with Jews; Benedictine. 44. p. 167. Temporale. Sunday before Palm Sunday: ‘D’, abbot blessing fronds. 45. p. 169. Temporale. Palm Sunday: ‘D’, entry into Jerusalem; bas-de-page landscape with ass and foal. 46. p. 181. Temporale. Third feast after Easter, Lectio: ‘I’, Flagellation. 47. p. 190. Temporale. Fourth feast, Lectio: Mocking of Christ. 48. p. 196. Temporale. Feria V in Cena Domini: ‘D’, Christ washing Apostles’ feet. 49. p. 199. Temporale. Good Friday: ‘I’, priest reading at lectern. 50. p. 200. Temporale. Good Friday, Passion per John: ‘E’, Man of Sorrows supported by angels; angel and cross. 51. p. 205. Temporale. Good Friday: ‘O’, church. 52. p. 209. Temporale. Easter Sunday, Vigil: ‘I’, God with compasses creates heavens and earth. 53. p. 214. Temporale. Prayer, ‘Deus qui hanc sacratissimam noctem’: ‘D’, Vernicle cloth. 54. p. 216. Temporale. Easter Sunday: Resurrection; Mitford and Bruyning presented by Sts Peter and Paul; Christ with orb displays wounds; ‘Noli me tangere’; scribe, John Whas and artist, John Siferwas; Antitypes; bas-de-page battle scene with wildmen and knights tilting at windmill. 55. p. 217. Temporale. Easter Sunday, Resurrection, Sequence: ‘I’, St. Mark seated at lectern. 56. p. 218. Temporale. Feria Secunda: ‘I’, Christ shows two Apostles land of milk and honey (City of God); Abbot Bruyning looks on. 57. p. 220. Temporale. Feria Tercia: ‘A’, risen Christ appears to Apostles; abbot. 58. p. 223. Temporale. Feria Quarta: ‘V’, calling of fishermen, Sts Andrew and Simon, with a religious with crosier. 59. p. 225. Temporale. Feria Quinta: ‘V’, ‘Noli me tangere’; abbot; angel; Siferwas in rose border. 60. p. 227. Temporale. Feria Sexta: ‘E’, Christ on mountain with Apostles; abbot. 61. p. 229. Temporale. Sabbato in albis: ‘E’, Peter and John at empty tomb; kneeling religious. 62. p. 231. Temporale. Domenica in albis, or Quasimodo: ‘Q’, doubting Thomas; angel with instruments of Passion. 63. p. 234. Temporale. Second Sunday after Easter: ‘M’, Christ appears to Apostles. 64. p. 236. Temporale. Third (not 2 nd as in MS.) Sunday after Easter: ‘I’, Christ appears to Apostles; abbot. 65. p. 239. Temporale. Fourth (not 3 rd as in MS.) Sunday after Easter: ‘C’, Apostles, Christ appears from cave. 66. p. 242. Temporale. Fifth (not 4 th as in MS.) Sunday after Easter: ‘V’, Christ with Apostles (Ascension?). 67. p. 249. Temporale. Ascension Day: Ascension; abbot; Antitypes. 68. p. 250. Temporale. Ascension, Sequence: ‘I’, St. Mark. 69. p. 251. Temporale. Sunday in Octave of Ascension: ‘E’, nimbed figure with raised arms. 70. p. 253. Temporale. Vigil of Pentecost: scenes of Abraham and Isaac. 71. p. 260. Temporale. Pentecost or Whit Sunday: ‘S’, Pentecost; ‘D’, John with 7 churches; ‘I’, St. Paul with sword; John of Revelation, prostrate before Apocalyptic Son of Man with swords held to mouth; God the Father with orb; lighted candlesticks; Mitford and Bruyning; scenes from Apocalypse and Gifts of Holy Spirit. 72. p. 261. Temporale. Pentecost, Sequence: ‘I’, St. John writing. 73. p. 262. Temporale. Whit Monday: ‘C’, Apocalyptic Agnus Dei; Lion of Judah; Bruyning; Sherborne arms; scenes of Gifts of Joy and Second Petition of Pater Noster. 74. p. 264. Temporale. Whit Tuesday: ‘A’, angels of 7 Churches of Asia; abbot; scenes of Gifts of Holy Spirit and Third Petition of Pater Noster. 75. p. 266. Temporale. Whit Wednesday: ‘D’, angel filling censer; divine hand; abbot; Sherborne arms; scenes of Gifts of Holy Spirit and Petitions of Pater Noster. 76. p. 268. Temporale. Feria quinta: ‘S’, trumpeting angel (Gifts of Holy Spirit); bas-de-page of camel and porcupine (bestiary symbols of fidelity and endurance). 77. p. 270. Temporale. Feria sexta: ‘R’, angel in red gesturing towards angels in white over waters; abbot; scenes of Gifts of the Holy Spirit and Petition of Pater Noster. 78. p. 271. Temporale. Saturday after Pentecost: ‘C’, God the Father blessing; Benedictine. 79. p. 276. Temporale. Trinity Sunday: ‘B’, God the Father, angels, Agnus Dei, Evangelists; ‘O’, angel with arms of Trinity; altar with Eucharist and dove; Christ displays wounds; Evangelists in niches; Mitford, Bruyning. Whas and Siferwas; architectural border inhabited by Orders of Angels; Evangelists in roundels; Orders of Angels with musical instruments. 80. p. 279. Temporale. Corpus Christi: ‘C’, Trinity, with dove descending upon man receiving Eucharist; ‘D’, St. Veronica with Vernicle Cloth; abbot; Antitypes. 81. p. 281. Temporale. First Sunday after Pentecost: Dives and Lazarus (feasting whilst dogs lick Lazarus’ sores). 82. p. 284. Temporale. Second Sunday after Pentecost: ‘F’, man who held a feast with apologetic guests; bas-de-page of guests proferring excuses. 83. p. 286. Temporale. Third Sunday after Pentecost: ‘R’, Christ with orb relates parables to Pharisees; woman with lamp seeking coin; man with lost sheep. 84. p. 289. Temporale. Fourth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘D’, Christ with orb converses with men; blind leading the blind (with guide-dog). 85. p. 292. Temporale. Fifth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘E’, Apostles leaving boat to follow Christ; Christ points at loaf (Apostolic Mission). 86. p. 294. Temporale. Sixth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘D’, Christ addresses Peter and disciples. 87. p. 298. Temporale. Seventh Sunday after Pentecost: ‘O’, Christ feeds the multitude; Christ with disciples and loaves; abbot. 88. p. 301. Temporale. Eighth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘S’, Christ addresses disciples; God the Father, with Scribes and Pharisees. 89. p. 304. Temporale. Ninth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘E’, Christ tells disciples a parable; man with steward and spade. 90. p. 307. Temporale. Tenth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘D’, Christ praying outside city, with disciples. 91. p. 310. Temporale. Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost: ‘D’, Pharisee praying at altar and publican abasing self outside. 92. p. 313. Temporale. Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘D’, Christ with orb preaching. 93. p. 316. Temporale. Thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘R’, Christ with orb addresses disciple; parable of Good Samaritan. 94. p. 319. Temporale. Fourteenth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘P’, Christ blessing Samaritan leper; Christ with ten lepers; leper before priest. 95. p. 322. Temporale. Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘I’, Christ with orb addresses disciples; landscape. 96. p. 325. Temporale. Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘M’, Christ blesses Peter, Andrew and another; Christ raises widow’s son. 97. p. 327. Temporale. Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘I’, parable of the wedding feast. 98. p. 339. Temporale. Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘D’, Christ with scribes; abbot. 99. p. 341. Temporale. Nineteenth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘S’, Christ heals sick man; abbot. 100. p. 344. Temporale. Twentieth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘O’, parable of king and son’s marriage feast; king’s men bind naked man without wedding garb. 101. p. 347. Temporale. Twenty-first Sunday after Pentecost: ‘I’, healing of noble of Capernaum’s son. 102. p. 350. Temporale. Twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost: ‘S’, parable of the talents. 103. p. 352. Temporale. Twenty-third Sunday after Pentecost: ‘D’, Pharisees test Christ re. Tribute; abbot. 104. p. 353. Temporale. Twenty-fourth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘D’, healing of Jairus’s daughter; woman with flow of blood. 105. p. 356. Temporale. Twenty-fifth Sunday after Pentecost: ‘D’, Christ addresses Andrew and Philip, who hold loaves and fishes; bas-de-page of feeding of the 5000. 106. p. 359. Ordo Missae. Gloria in Excelsis: Historiated initials with busts depicting hierarchy of the Church; bas-de-page of Annunciation to shepherds. 107. p. 360. Ordo Missae. Credo: ‘C’, with praying man. 108. pp. 363-377. Ordo Missae. Preface of the Mass: Historiated initials inhabited by busts of early bishops of Sherborne (some labelled in Middle English; for names, see Herbert and Scott); large marginal depictions of British birds (many labelled in Middle English, see Yapp); in lower margins figures dressed as members of the various religious orders hold scrolls carrying historical texts drawn from York history tables (transcribed by Herbert). 109. p. 376. Ordo Missae. Prefatio defunctorum: ‘P’, Christ exhibits wounds; ‘V’, Crucifixion; Virgin and Child, Sts Peter and Paul; Mitford and Bruyning; Crowned Virgin with outspread hands. 110. p. 380. Canon Missae: introduced by full-page Crucifixion miniature, with Christ on tau cross, flanked by thieves, fainting Virgin supported by women and St. John, Magdalene at foot of Cross, and lively crowd of mounted onlookers in contemporary dress, including Longinus, with angels above; Evangelists writing in cornerpieces of frame; roundels on frame containing depictions of Moses and brazen serpent, Elisha and Sunamite’s child, Sacrifice of Isaac, and figures of Peace and Justice. Bruyning’s motto appears on background to miniature. 111. pp. 381-393. Canon Missae: Historiated initials; borders, foliate and inhabited; (from p. 382) large marginal images of British birds (see Yapp and Herbert); in lower margins figures of Sherborne’s benefactors (including Anglo-Saxon kings; see Legg, Herbert and Scott) hold charters with seals representing Sherborne’s properties (partly drawn from Sherborne Cartulary, see Legg and Herbert). Kings are: Kenewalchus and Kenewolphus (Kenulphus), p. 381; Athelbertus and Athelphus, p. 382; Athelstanus and Godredus, p. 383; Edwin and Edgar, p. 384; Ethelredus (Edhelredus), twice, p. 385; Edward and Ine, p. 386; Egbertus and Athelwald, p. 387; Henry and Bishop Sigehelm, p. 388; Archbishop Baldewyn and Bishop Roger of Salisbury, p. 389; Cuthredus and Kynelwolphus, p. 390; Kenewolphus and Offa, p. 391; Sigertus and Alfred, p. 392; Geroncius (Gerontius) and Henry, p. 393. 112. p. 381. Canon Missae. ‘Te Igitur’, Trinity, Agnus Dei; Kings Kenewalchus and Kenewolphus (or Kenulphus). 113. p. 387. Canon Missae. ‘P’, God the Father with orb, blessing; ‘P’, Christ the Judge, seated on rainbow; Mitford and Bruyning; Mary Magdalene; angels supporting cloth of honour behind Virgin and Child; God the Father, blessing; Kings Egbertus and Athelwald. 114. p. 388. Canon Missae. ‘P’, Agnus Dei on altar; lion; Mitford and Bruyning; God the Father, blessing; Evangelists as grisaille statues; John the Baptist pointing to Agnus Dei; King Henry and Bishop Sigehelm. 115. p. 393. Canon Missae. John the Baptist and Agnus Dei as line-filler; Kings Geroncius and Henry. 116. pp. 395-611. Sanctorale. Borders and 258 historiated initials inhabited by saints (see Scott for full listing). Amongst the most notable of these are as follows: 117. p. 395. Sanctorale. St. Sylvester as Pope; Benedictine; angels; bas-de-page of Constantine’s vision of Sts Peter and Paul, Constantine with swaddled infants and Pope Sylvester. 118. p. 397. Sanctorale. St. Wulsin, Bishop of Sherborne (992-1002), seated and bas-de-page expelling Goscelin and the canons and installing Benedictines in 998. 119. p. 469. Sanctorale. Life of John the Baptist. 120. p. 488. Sanctorale. St. Benedict, with border formed of Benedictine ‘Jesse Tree’ issuing from Benedict’s loins. 121. p. 489. Sanctorale. Martyrdom of St. Juthwara. 122. p. 492. Sanctorale. Dedication of Sherborne Abbey, with St. Kenelm, bishop blessing church and devil fleeing, Abbot Bruyning with hounds, and Christ with the publican. 123. p. 524. Sanctorale. Feast of Assumption of the Virgin: Coronation of Virgin; Death of Virgin; Assumption of Virgin; border of Benedictines. 124. p. 542. Sanctorale. Feast of Nativity of the Virgin: birth of Virgin; Bruyning; Jesse Tree. 125. p. 573. Sanctorale. St. Luke painting sculpture of the Virgin. 126. p. 581. Sanctorale. All Saints: Virgin and all saints; Bruyning; Moses and the burning bush; John the Baptist with Agnus Dei. 127. p. 592. Sanctorale. Annunciation: Annunciation and bas-de-page of Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple. 128. p. 606. Sanctorale. Octave: St. Andrew; (Conception of Virgin); Benedictines. 129. pp. 613-662. Commune Sanctorum: small historiated initials inhabited by saints. 130. pp. 663-694. Missae Votivae: 131. p. 663. ‘Benedicta sit sancta trinitas’: God the Father with orb, blessing. 132. p. 664. ‘Missa de sancto spiritu’: Spirit descending as dove on Apostles (Pentecost). 133. p. 666. ‘Nos autem gloriari oportet in cruce’: cross in landscape. 134. p. 667. ‘In aduentu domini missa de sancta maria officium’: Annunciation. 135. p. 669. ‘Missa de sancta maria’: Virgin and Child. 136. p. 670. ‘In paschali tempore’: Virgin preparing to suckle Christ. 137. p. 671. ‘De sancta maria pro totum’: Virgin preparing to suckle Christ. 138. p. 673. ‘Missa de angelis’: three nimbed busts, one crowned. 139. p. 674. ‘Missa pro pace’: armed knight with open visor and upturned sword. ‘Missa pro rege et regina’: busts of king and queen. 140. p. 675. ‘Missa pro familiaribus’: priest praying at altar with images. ‘Missa proprie sacerdotis’: priest at altar. 141. p. 676. ‘Missa pro serenitate’: radiance upon a landscape. ‘Missa pro pascendam pluuiam’: landscape with waves above and new moon. 142. p. 677. ‘Missa pro pace ecclesie’: church. ‘Missa pro congrecacione’: angel holding cross. 143. p. 678. ‘Missa pro quacumque tribulacionibus’: kneeling Benedictine. ‘Missa pro infirmo fratre’: monk examining urine bottle beside bedridden monk. 144. p. 679. ‘Missa pro animabus omnium fidelium defunctorum officium’ (rubric on p. 678): two priests behind black bier. 145. p. 682. ‘Missa pro corpore presenti’: red bier. 146. p. 683. ‘Missa in anniuersario’: black bier. ‘Missam pro defunctis’: red bier. 147. p. 684. ‘Missa pro episcopo defuncto’: red bier. ‘Missam pro defunctis’: kneeling Benedictine. ‘Missam pro fratribus et sororibus’: black bier. 148. p. 685. ‘Missa pro feminis’: black bier. 149. p. 686. ‘Missa pro animabus omnium fidelium’: six dead in shrouds with red crosses on hoods. ‘Missa generalis de omnibus sanctis’: Vernicle Cloth. 150. p. 687. ‘Omnium sanctorum tuorum’: Vernicle Cloth.
  • Collection Area: Western Manuscripts
  • Reference: Add MS 74236
  • Creation Date: c 1399-1407
  • Extent and Access:
    1 item

    Access Conditions: Restrictions to access apply please consult British Library staff:
  • Language: English
  • Contents and Scope:

    Music: Square Gothic notation in Sherborne Missal: circa 1399-1407.

    John Whas, Benedictine monk, [of Sherborne?]: John Siferwas, artist: The Sherborne Missal , written by John Whas, illuminated by J. Siferwas and others: circa 1399-1407: Lat.

    Liturgies LATIN: Sherborne; Abbey of St Mary: Sherborne Missal: Robert Bruyning, Abbot of Sherborne: The Sherborne Missal prepared for R. Bruyning as principal patron: circa 1399-1407: Lat.


    • pp. 36, 260, 276, 376, 387, 388, 581 Richard Mitford, Bishop of Salisbury: Arms and depictions of Richard Mitford in the Sherborne Missal: circa 1399-1407: Lat.
    • p. 81 Henry V of England: Arms of Henry V as Prince of Wales in the Sherborne Missal: circa 1399-1407: Lat.

  • History:
    Custodial History:

    Percy family; Dukes of Northumberland: Owned 1800-1998.

    George Galwey Mills, of Slaughter House, county Glos: Owned 1797-1800 (bookplate).

    M. de Selles, Treasurer-General, French Navy: Owned mid 18th cent.

    Charles Orléans, Abbé de Rothelin: Owned bef. 1744.

    Nicholas Joseph Foucault, Marquis de Magny: Owned aft. 1703.

    L. G. de Matignon, Bishop of Lisieux: Owned in 1703.

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